Monday, 13 July 2020

Writing Cover Letter

I Fill in the blanks (1-15) in the cover letter below with the prepositions from the lists.

during; for; on; of; in; with; for; for; of; at; from; forward; in; for; for

Ms. Harriet Fauchetti
Director of Corporate Web Development
Reaching Out, Inc.
423 Clifton Avenue
San Jose, CA 95128

Dear Ms. Fauchetti,

Your advertisement  1)_______ an Interactive Web Designer  interested  me because 2)_______ my enthusiasm for Web development/design and my strong desire to continue working and building a career in that field. My résumé is enclosed 3)_______  your consideration.

4)_______  recent years, I have utilized  my creative, analytical and problem-solving skills to complete several Web-related projects with Higher IT Experience, both independently and as a project team member. These include  the following:
·       building, programming, testing and refining an enrolment-tracking application with an intuitive user interface;
·       designing and developing one module for the successful, timely release  5)_______ a new product;
·       designing and implementing a Web user interface;
·       creating a process and templates for production of JPEG images 6)_______  hotel Web sites

Prior to that time, I gained solid experience as a programmer/analyst, a software architect and a software /support engineer. Key activities included    database development and troubleshooting, small-business application development and interactive product testing. My ability to understand and analyse complex problems; communicate with clients to assess their needs; and develop innovative, practical solutions enabled   me to make a worthwhile contribution to each of my employers 7)_______  that period.

As I prepare  to close out my work 8)_______  the software application I developed 9)_______  Higher IT Experience, I am beginning  to search 10)_______  an employment situation that will allow   me to use my existing experience and skills in Web  development/design while also offering potential opportunities to expand and enhance my professional strengths.

I am definitely interested 11)_______  being considered for the position of Interactive Web Designer 12)_______ Reaching Out and would like  to arrange an interview 13)_______  your earliest convenience to discuss how I can contribute  to your team. I look 14)_______  to hearing   15)_______  you soon.

Sincerely yours,

Alan Bartly

Alan Bartly

II It is important to write Cover Letter using appropriate language. Informal language may sometimes be acceptable in cover letters, but more formal alternatives will create a more professional impression. Complete the following table using the formal words from the letter in Task I.


to use


to want

to talk about

to make able


to look for


III OVER to YOU. Write a similar cover letter listing your skills and experience.

Sunday, 12 July 2020

The rules of coronaspeak. New words and how to create them

The rules of coronaspeak. New words and how to create them

I Lead in. Look at the new English words invented during Covid-19 pandemic.

quarantini;  locktail hour; coronaverse; infodemic; pando; infit; covidiot; iso; Zoom fatigue; quaransheen; quarantimes; coronacoinage; coronapocalypse; sanny; coronasplaining’ emotional coronacoaster

1)    Can you guess what the words mean? Share our ideas with other students.
2)    Match the words in the list to their meanings. Look through the article in Task II to check your answers.

a)    clothes worn inside during lockdown
b)    the world people now inhabit
c)    (Australian) isolation
d)    extreme tiredness and loss of energy resulting from the virtual meetings
e)    (Australian) pandemic
f)     the era in which people now live
g)    a martini mixed and drunk in lockdown
h)    fear and uncertainty due to the COVID-19 outbreak
i)      quick spread of unreliable news
j)     feelings that alternate between joy and despair during lockdown
k)    fears of the total breakdown of society as a result of coronavirus
l)      unwashed sweat on people’s faces during video conferences
m)  (Australian) hand sanitiser
n)    people who reject restrictions and behave in ways likely to make the pandemic worse
o)    a time when people drink cocktails while isolating (usually at the end of the week)
p)    situation when a non-expert tries to explain coronavirus and its effects
q)    invention of new words of phrases during the coronavirus pandemic

II Look through the article. Five sentences have been removed. Read the article and choose from the sentence (A-F) the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence that you do not need to use.
Necessity, they say, is the mother of invention. Perhaps boredom is its father, and – in the world of language and its coinage – social media the incubator. 1)_________
Start with the coronaverse, which people everywhere now inhabit, or the quarantimes, the era in which they now live. Early fears of the total breakdown of society in a coronapocalypse have proved, thankfully, too pessimistic. But viral anxiety reigns, as do complaints of Zoom fatigue. Participants appear on screen for meetings with a quaransheen of unwashed sweat on their faces. Feelings seem to be on an emotional coronacoaster. Meanwhile, covidiots are spurning lockdown restrictions in ways likely to make the pandemic worse, amid an infodemic of dodgy news and half-informed coronasplaining. At least there is a locktail hour at the end of the week (or, for many, at the end of most days).
Most of these coronacoinages – whether you have encountered them before or not – make sense on their face. But why exactly do they work? 2)_________ What, for example, is a morona? Along with the new terms above, these appear on a list collected by Tony Thorne, a linguist at King’s College London. But chances are high that most readers don’t know them, and fewer still will be using them.
3)_________ One is to repurpose an old one: the pandemic has yielded new meanings for bubble, for instance. Then there is shortening, on which Australians seem particularly keen, having coined pando (pandemic), iso (isolation) and sanny (hand sanitiser).
But the most creative category in Mr Thorne’s collection – and the largest, at nearly 40% of the total – are portmanteau words. 4)_________
The first rule of a successful new portmanteau is that it points to a thing worth naming. This may seem obvious, but perhaps not so to the coiners of infits – a decent pun on outfits, but as a term for the clothes worn inside during lockdown it is a solution in search of a problem.
The second rule is that a portmanteau should be transparent; ie, the words that went into it should be obvious. Few English words end in -tini, with the result that if someone invites you for a quarantini, you know what to expect. The more of the original two words you can use, the better. This, in turn, is much aided if the distinctive sounds in those words overlap, making the result more compact. The “teen” sound in quarantini (shared by both quarantine and martini) is key to its success.
An overlooked rule of portmanteaus is that the second element is more important than the first. That is because it is the core of the word: an XY is a type of Y, not a type of X. This explains the weakness of morona, a synonym for covidiot, from corona moron. It obeys the overlap requirement above (in the sharing of -oron-), but falls at the sequencing hurdle, since a morona is not a type of corona. Dictionary websites often have a notice to would-be word-coiners: please don’t send us your neologism and ask to have it included. 5)_________ If you want your contribution to coronaspeak to take off, you need to lobby not the dictionary-writers, but your friends and colleagues, and get them to use and publicise it. Good coinages are much rarer than failed ones, but pay attention to usefulness, transparency and sounds, and your invention may find its way into the panglossary.

A.    There are various ways to form new words.
B.    To answer that, it helps to look at some efforts that do not.
C.   There are regional variations in the preferred terminology: quarantine in official and popular usage in the UK; cocooning is a central plank in health policy in Ireland.
D.   Dictionaries record not useful words, but used ones, which are actually spoken or written long or often enough to convince the lexicographers that they have found a place in the language.
E.    The coronavirus pandemic has produced a vast number of new terms, serious and (mostly) playful, to describe the predicaments of lockdown.
F.    A portmanteau is a term like brunch, in which two words are combined, usually one or both being shortened.

III Comprehension check. Mark the sentences as True (T) or False (F). Correct the false statements.

1)    People only invent new words if they are bored.  
2)    Not all of the words invented during the pandemic are scientific terms.  
3)    Locktail hour described an hour at the end of the week, but for many people it happened at the end of most days.  
4)    Most of the coronacoinages are difficult to understand.  
5)    Most of the coronacoinages will be part of everyday usage.  
6)    Coronacoinages are formed by suffixation.  
7)    Sometimes people give new meanings to familiar words to describe new phenomena.    
8)    The article gives example of Australian coronacoinages that were the results of repurposing old terms.  
9)    In the collection of the new corona-related words shortenings are the largest group.  
10)    A portmanteau is a term in which two words are combined, usually one or both words are shortened.  
11)    Ice cream is an example of a portmanteau word.  
12)    To be successful a new portmanteau word should be easy to remember.   
13)    A portmanteau should be easy to understand; i.e., it should be clear which words went into a new portmanteau.  
14)    It’s good if in a new word the sounds overlap, making the result more compact.  
15)    In portmanteaus the first element is more important than the second.  
16)    Word morona was not successful because it didn’t follow the rules for portmanteau creation.    
17)    When you create a new word you should send it to a dictionary website.  
18)    Dictionaries record all useful and funny words that are seldom used.  

IV Vocabulary focus. Follow the link below. Study the words and word combinations using flashcards, check your understanding, practise their  spelling. Check your knowledge in the test. Play matching vocabulary game (match words to their definitions to make cards disappear)  and save the planet from asteroids by typing in correct words.


A.   Follow the link to the blog listing new words. Choose  three words that are most interesting for you and find out if they exist in your native language. If similar words do not exist in your language, what terms would be used in your native language to express the same idea?
B.   Find what new words related to coronavirus pandemic were created in your native language. How would you explain the meaning of these words to English speakers?
C.   Try to create your own coronacoinage and share it with other students. Remember the rules for successful new words:

a.     There are various ways to form new words: repurposing old words, shortening, creating portmanteau words.
b.    New words should point to a thing worth naming.
c.     A portmanteau should be transparent.
d.    In portmanteaus the second element is more important than the first. 

Sunday, 5 July 2020

Places in town. What will be open in England?

Places in town.What will be open in England?

I Lead in. Answer the questions.
1.    What places in your town or city were open during the Covid-19 pandemic?
2.    What businesses and places were closed during the Covid-19 pandemic?
3.    What places will soon be open for people in future in your town or city?

II Watch the video and note down names of at least five places that will soon open in England.

III Watch the video about easing lockdown in England and choose the correct option to complete the sentences.

From tomorrow the 2-meter social distancing/distanced/stencil rule will be replaced with a 1 meter plus measure where 2 meters is implausible/improbable/impossible. And in addition to that there'll be recommended safety measures such as fact/face/facing coverings, increased hygiene, and changes to business lay/layouts/playgrounds. Social gatherings will also be different as two folds/old house/households will be able to meet regardless of size, indoors and orders/outdoors/odours. So things, for example, like dinner/dined/planner parties will be allowed and overnight stays as well. A long list of businesses will reopen including restaurants, parts/pubs/curbs, and cafes, but safety measures will mean minimal staff and customer contract/attract/contact, table service, and taking customers contact details/detailed/tails to help with any tracing in case of an outbreak.

 Glossary: household = a group of people, for example a family, who live     together.

staff = people who work for an organization.
customer = a client.

IV What places for tourism will be open in England? Watch the video and put the images in order.  

Glossary: B&B = (bed and breakfast) a small hotel offering a room to sleep in and a morning meal.
campsite = a piece of land where people on holiday can camp.
holiday home =  a house that tourists can rent for their holidays.

V Look at the photos below. Match the words to the images.

1.    funfair – a place in a park or field where people ride machines for fun and play games to win prizes.
2.    community centre – a place where people who live in an area can meet to take courses.
3.    amusement arcade – an indoor place where people play coin-operated machines.
4.    playground – an area designed for children to play.
5.    gallery – a building for showing works of art.

VI What cultural and leisure venues will be open in England? Watch the video and underline the names of the places that will be open.

a)    theatre
b)    art school
c)    gallery
d)    playground
e)    funfair
f)     cinema
g)    library
h)    museum
i)      casino
j)     community centre
k)    amusement arcade

VII How will other places function after the lockdown?  Watch the video and mark the sentences as True (T) or False (F). Correct the false statements.

1.    Hairdresser’s will open.
2.    Clients at hairdresser’s will have to wear visors.
3.    Places of worship will also reopen.
4.    People cannot visit places of worship for services such as weddings.
5.    Religious ceremonies will have a 60-person   limit.

Glossary: visor = a transparent shield that cover face.

VIII Match the words to the images. Which of these places will soon be in England? Watch and check your answers.

1.    bowling alley
2.    spa
3.    water park
4.    indoor swimming pool
5.    hairdresser’s
6.    indoor gym
7.    nail bar
8.    nightclub

IX Vocabulary focus. Follow the link below. Focus on the words and expressions (study definitions), match the terms to their definitions, solve the crossword puzzle, complete the quiz, chase down the correct answer to earnpoints, unscramble words and phrases (correct order of letters), type in words to fill in the blanks, test your knowledge of  vocabulary.

X OVER TO YOU. Discuss the questions:
a)    What places in your town or city will open soon? Are they the same places that will be open in England?
b)    What places in your opinion are important for people?
c)    What will the new rules for clients be in those places?